are secondary metabolites of molds that have adverse effects on humans,
animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxins,
ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins are the mycotoxins of
greatest agro-economic importance. Some molds are capable of producing more
than one mycotoxin and some mycotoxins are produced by more than one fungal
species. Often more than one mycotoxin is found on a contaminated substrate.
Mycotoxins occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate,
favourable for the growth of molds, they can also be found in temperate zones.
Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal
and inhalation routes. The diseases caused by exposure to mycotoxins are known
as mycotoxicoses. However, mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical
professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. Factors
influencing the presence of mycotoxins include environmental conditions related
to storage that can be controlled. Other extrinsic factors such as climate or
intrinsic factors such as fungal strain specificity, strain variation, and
instability of toxigenic properties are more difficult to control. Mycotoxins
have various acute and chronic effects on humans and animals (especially
monogastrics) depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a
species. Ruminants have, however, generally been more resistant to the adverse
effects of mycotoxins. This is because the rumen microbiota is capable of
degrading mycotoxins. The economic impact of mycotoxins include loss of human
and animal life, increased health care and veterinary care costs, reduced
livestock production, disposal of contaminated foods and feeds, and investment
in research and applications to reduce severity of the mycotoxin problem.
Although efforts have continued internationally to set guidelines to control
mycotoxins, practical measures have not been adequately implemented.
Obioma, N (2018). MYCOTOXINS AND ITS EFFECTS. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 18, 2018, from http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/mycotoxins-and-its-effects-1409
Nnadozie, Obioma. "MYCOTOXINS AND ITS EFFECTS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/mycotoxins-and-its-effects-1409 . Accessed 18 Aug. 2018.
Nnadozie, Obioma. "MYCOTOXINS AND ITS EFFECTS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 18 Aug. 2018. < http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/mycotoxins-and-its-effects-1409 >.
Nnadozie, Obioma. "MYCOTOXINS AND ITS EFFECTS" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed August 18, 2018. http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/mycotoxins-and-its-effects-1409