1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The industrial revolution of the mid 18th century significantly changed the world of work by introduction machinery. Work moved away from being predominantly agricultural (based on peasantry and tendal land tenures) to factors labor truly became a commodity as workers received only wages for their efforts
The factory system of production needs four categories of inputs: money to finance operation, machines to produce goods and services, men to operate the machines and managements to put every other thing together. Machines are complex pieces of equipment which a worker has to master to operate. The worker operating machines is usually not the inventor or designer, (like under the domestic or craft system of production). The skill with which a worker operates a machine affected the efficiency of production and the safety and health of the worker.
The situation arises because factory work involved machines that worked at considerable high speeds and which can infeflict injures if great acre is not taken. Also the factory system requires workers to work at a position or within a limited area, doing what are commonly monotonous tasks.
Attention can easily wave when work is monotonous and a person who works at a point (like assembly line worker) may be subjected to physical and physical ecological strain and stress. When this is combined with the speed of operation of machines, the producer of management health and safety becomes easy to appreciate.
There are many definition of the work accident psychologists Arbous A.G and Kerrick J. consider that “in a chain of events each of which is planned or controlled, there occurs an unplanned event which is termed accident”
Schulzinger (1978) also regards accidents as sudden, unplanned and uncontrolled event.
Perhaps a simple definition of an industrial accident is “a mishap resulting in damage to property and or injury or death to person”. It will so far be considered for this research so as to enable us have a quick examination of some of the factors causing occupational or industrial and diseases.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A study of industrial accident is crucial to knowing the effects on productivity. And productivity has its effects on the standard of life obtained in any society. Industrial safety comes in when considering productivity because one important factors requires for its attainment is labor as enunciated in maslow’s theory of motivation. The search for security or safety is second nature to man. That is why he always tries to play it safe in all his undertaking and will normally not be forth coming where he considers such unsafe.
The advanced learner’s Dictionary defined safety as “being safe, freedom from dangers”
Thus industrial safety relates to freedom from danger as it permeates the entire industrial activities. Accident on the other hand have been defined as “an Unforeseen event or one without an apparent cause. Anything that occurs unintentionally or by chance. A misfortune or mishap, especially one causing injury or death” well, industrial accident could be simply defined as “a mishap resulting in damage to property and or injury or death to persons.
Many definitions of the word accident have been given in this work. One example was the one given by Psychologist, A.G Arbous and J. Kerrick in their work “concept of accident prove ness” stated as follows: In a chain events each of which is planned or controlled, there occurs an unplanned event which, being the result of some non-adjustive act on the part of the individual may or may not result in injury.
The review so far devoted to the definition of industrial safety is called for, so as to get the research topic in its right perspective.
Precisely, industrial accidents are accidents which occur within a factory or an industry. And the literature review will hence look into some published reports of studies dealing with industrial accident it causes, effects and solution. Also efforts will be made to study ways of achieving productivity within improved stage environment. A desirable goal, as well as supported by this quotation credited to the largest multiple line insurance carrier in United State of America (USA) that “An injury prevented is a benefaction, an injury compensated an apology.