ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDSMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE

Onumaegbu Chibuzo Premium 128 PAGES (35609 WORDS) Project 226 Views
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
The violent conflicts between sedentary farmers and pastoral herdsmen have become a recurring decimal in Nigeria’s drive to nationhood. It has assumed a grievous dimension in recent time thereby threatening peaceful coexistence. The research examines the environmental underpinnings of the conflict between farmers and herdsmen and its effect on socio-economic development in Plateau State. The research shows that environmental scarcity plays a prominent role in the conflict because it remains the major cause of the violent altercation between farmers and herdsmen. This environmental scarcity is in the form of limited grazing sites, farmland and fresh water. The research employs the Homer Dixon’s eco-violence theory in explaining the variables under study. The theory explains the relationship between environmental factors and violent conflict. The research also adopts the primary source of data collection which is qualitative in character base on the triangulation method. This methodology affords the research the opportunity to generate data from semi-structured interview, focus group discussion and observation of informants and conflict areas. The investigation shows that the nature and causes of the conflict is multifaceted, thereby assuming different dimensions which include; ethnic, religious, economic, political and environmental. The research further shows that the conflict has greatly affected the social and economic lives of the people. Socially, it has led to change in inter-group relations and mutual mistrust between famers and herdsmen. It has also affected the people’s standard of living, while the vulnerable groups which include women and children have suffered severely as a result of the conflict. The study also shows that the conflict have affected economic activities in the form of trading, markets and agricultural production. Livestock production like meat, dairy products, hides and skin and bones have also been affected. The research also shows that the conflicts have led to break down of law and order which culminates in destruction of lives and property and displacement of people which explains the humanitarian effect of the conflict. The research also investigates the various responses by the community, government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) in finding solutions to the conflict. The research concludes that all stake holders must cooperate to frontally confront the menace of this recurrent farmers and herdsmen debacle in Plateau State by adhering to the recommendations of this study. In this regard, Progress can only be made when the most important stake holders in the conflict (farmers and herdsmen) are willing to sheath their sword, dialogue and make compromise on areas of conflicting interest and goal scarcity.      

Title Page - - - - - - - - -
Approval Page - - - - - - - -
Certification - - - - - - - - -
Dedication - - - - - - - - -
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - -
Table of Contents - - - - - - - -
Abstract - - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - -
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - -
1.3 Research Questions - - - - - - -
1.4 Objectives of the Study - - - - - -
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - -
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - -

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW, THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - -
2.1.1 Eco-Violence Theory - - - - - -
2.2 Conceptual Framework - - - - - -
2.2.1 Pastoralism - - - - - - - -
2.2.2 Sedentary Crop Farming - - - - - -
2.2.3 Environmental Conflict - - - - - -
2.2.4 Socio-economic Development - - - - -
2.3 Review of Related Literatures and the Gap this Study Fills - -

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - -
3.2 Area of Study - - - - - - - -
3.3 Population of the Study and Sample Size - - - -
3.4 Data Collection Method - - - - - -
3.4.1 Triangulation Method - - - - - -
3.4.2 Semi Structured Interview - - - - - -
3.4.3 Focus Group Discussion - - - - - -
3.4.4 Observation of Participants and Violent Conflict Areas - -
3.4.5 Challenges Encountered and how these were Managed - -
3.5 Data Analysis Process - - - - - - -
3.6 Ethical Consideration - - - - - - -

CHAPTER FOUR: GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY AREA AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT IN PLATEAU STATE 
4.1 History of Plateau State - - - - - -
4.2 Geographical Location and Ecology of Plateau State - -
4.3 The People of Plateau State - - - - - -
4.4 Agricultural Profile of Plateau State - - - -
4.5 The Spread of the Fulani in Plateau State - - - -
4.6 An Overview of Environmental Conflict in Plateau State - -

CHAPTER FIVE: ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDSMEN IN PLATEAU STATE
5.1 Origin of the Conflict between Farmers and Herdsmen in Plateau State-
5.2 Kind and Nature of the Conflict between Farmers and Herdsmen -
5.3 The Causes of the Conflict between Farmers and Herdsmen -
5.4 Social and Economic Relationship between Farmers 
and Herdsmen in Plateau State   - - - - -
5.4.1 Origin of the Farmers and Herdsmen Habitation and 
Relationship in Plateau State - - - - - -
5.4.2 The Changing Relationship between Farmers and Herdsmen -
5.4.3 Mutual Mistrust between Farmers and Herdsmen - - -
5.5. The Prevalent Nature of Conflict between Farmers and Herdsmen -
5.6 Humanitarian Effect of Conflict between Farmers and Herdsmen -
5.6.1 Effects on Peaceful Coexistence, Security, Stability and 
Lives of the People - - - - - - -
5.6.2 Displacement of People in the Community - - - -
5.7 The Economic Effect of Farmers Herdsmen Conflict 
in Plateau State - - - - - - -
5.7.1 The Effect on Commercial Activities like Trading, Markets, 
Agricultural Productivity and Farming Activities - - -
5.7.2 Effect of the Conflict on Cattle Rustling and Killing of Cows -
5.7.3 Effect of the Conflict on Livestock Production like Meat, 
Dairy Products, Hides and Skin, and Bones - - - -
5.8 Social Effect of Conflict between Farmer and Herdsmen - -
5.8.1 Effect of the Conflict on the Standard of Living of the People -
5.8.2 Effect of the Conflict on Vulnerable Groups:
 Women and Children - - - - - -
5.9 Efforts and Responses to Curb the Spate of Farmers
 Herdsmen Conflict - - - - - - -
5.9.1 Community Response against Farmers Herdsmen Conflict - -
5.9.2 Government Response on Farmers Herdsmen Conflict - - -
5.9.3 Efforts Government should Put in Place to Ensure Peaceful Coexistence -
5.9.4 General Measures that should be Taken to Bring an 
End to the Conflict - - - - - - -

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - - -
6.2 Conclusions - - - - - - - -
6.3 Recommendation - - - - - - -
6.4 Limitation of the Study - - - - - -
6.5 Suggestions for Further Research - - - - -
References
Appendices 
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


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APA

Onumaegbu, C (2018). ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDSMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE. Afribary.com: Retrieved May 21, 2018, from http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/environmental-conflict-between-farmers-and-herdsmen-and-its-effect-on-socio-economic-development-in-plateau-state-280

MLA 8th

Chibuzo, Onumaegbu. "ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDSMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/environmental-conflict-between-farmers-and-herdsmen-and-its-effect-on-socio-economic-development-in-plateau-state-280 . Accessed 21 May. 2018.

MLA7

Chibuzo, Onumaegbu. "ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDSMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 21 May. 2018. < http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/environmental-conflict-between-farmers-and-herdsmen-and-its-effect-on-socio-economic-development-in-plateau-state-280 >.

Chicago

Chibuzo, Onumaegbu. "ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT BETWEEN FARMERS AND HERDSMEN AND ITS EFFECT ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed May 21, 2018. http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/environmental-conflict-between-farmers-and-herdsmen-and-its-effect-on-socio-economic-development-in-plateau-state-280