EFFECTS OF READING DIFFICULTIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UYO CITY POLYTECHNIC STUDENTS

Promise Ekong 154 PAGES (11133 WORDS) Project 0 Views

TABLE

OF CONTENTS





Declaration

....................................................................................................

Ii





Dedication

....................................................................................................

Iii





Acknowledgements

...................................................................................

Iv





Abstract

......................................................................................................

Xii





Chapter

one: introduction .................               .........................................

1





1.1 Background to the Study

........................................................................ 1





1.2 Statement of the Problem

...................................................................... 5





1.3

Purpose of the Study ..........................................................................

7





1.4 Objectives of the study..........................................................................

7





1.5 Research Questions

...............................................................................

7





1.6 Significance of the Study

....................................................................... 8





1.7 Limitation and Delimitation

.................................................................. 8





1.7.1

Limitation ...........................................................................................

8





1.7.2

Delimitation

.......................................................................................

9





1.8 Assumptions of the Study

...................................................................... 9





1.9  Operational Definition of Terms

......................................................... 14





CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE





 2.1

Introduction ........................................................................................

17





2.2 Definitions of Reading and Reading

Difficulties ................................. 17





2.3 Comprehension Errors and Students

Academic Performance ............. 19





2.4 Reading Difficulties on Students

Academic Performance .................... 21





2.4.1 Gender Difference in Reading

Difficulties ...................................... 21





2.4.2 Reading Difficulties and Learning

Disabilities Controversy ........... 21





2.5 Challenges of Dealing with Students with

Reading Difficulties ........... 22





2.6 Strategies to Enhance Reading

Comprehension ................................... 23





2.7 Theoretical Framework

......................................................................... 10





2.7.1 Conceptual Framework on Students‟

Reading Difficulties, Social and Emotional Adjustment

....................................................................... 11





2.7.2 Summary

...........................................................................................

24





CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY





3.1 Introduction

..........................................................................................

26





3.2 Research Design

....................................................................................

26





3.3 Study Variables

.....................................................................................

26





3.3.1 Independent Variable

....................................................................... 26





3.3.2 Intervening Variables

....................................................................... 27





3.3.3 Dependent Variable

......................................................................... 27





3.4 Location of the Study

............................................................................ 27





3.5 Target Population

.................................................................................

28





3.6 Sampling Technique and Sample Size

.................................................. 28





3.6.1 Sampling Technique

........................................................................ 28





3.6.2 Sample Size

......................................................................................

29





3.7 Research Instruments ............................................................................

30





3.7.1

Questionnaires..................................................................................

30





3.7.2 Cloze Test for Students

.................................................................... 30





3.8 Pilot Study

.............................................................................................

31





3.8.1 Validity of the Instruments

.............................................................. 31





3.8.2 Reliability of the

Instruments........................................................... 32





3.9 Data Collection Procedure

.................................................................... 32





3.10 Data Analysis Techniques

................................................................... 33





3.11 Logistical and Ethical Considerations

................................................. 33





3.12 Summary

.............................................................................................

34





CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATIONS, ANALYSIS

AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS





4.1 Introduction

...........................................................................................

35





4.2 Respondents‟ Demographic Information

.............................................. 35





4.2.1 Gender of Teachers

.......................................................................... 35





4.2.2 Age of Teachers

...............................................................................

36





4.2.3 Education Level of Teachers

........................................................... 37





4.2.4 Teachers‟ years of Service in Current

Schools ................................ 38





4.2.5 Form Three Class Enrollment

.......................................................... 39





4.3 Comprehension Errors that affect

Students‟ Academic Performance. ....... 40





4.3.1 Common Comprehension Errors as Per

Learners‟ Data .................. 40





4.4 Effects of Reading Difficulties

(Comprehension Errors) on Academic Performance ...............................................................................................

41





4.4.1 General Students Performance in

English ....................................... 48





4.4.1.2 Teachers‟ Opinions on Causes of Poor

Academic Performance .... 50





4.4.1.2 Effects of Poor Academic Performance

on Students‟ Learning Consistent

.........................................................................................

50





4.5 Challenges Faced by Secondary School

English Language Teachers .. 54





4.5.1 Form Three Students Who Lack Interest

in All School Activities .. 56





4.5.2 Problems in Teaching Reading

Comprehension ............................. 58





4.5.3 Methods that Teachers Use to Assess

Students Reading Comprehension ................................................................................

60





4.5.5 Frequency of Conducting Library

Lessons by Teachers ................. 61





4.6 Strategies that Enhance Reading

Comprehension in Kiambu District Mixed Day Public Secondary Schools

....................................................... 63





4.6.1 Teachers‟ Attendance of In-Service

Training in Reading Instructions After Completion of Their Initial Teachers

Training ...................... 64





4.6.2 Teachers‟ Agreement with Various

Statements on Strategies to Enhance Reading Comprehension

................................................... 65





4.7 Summary

.............................................................................................

67





CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION  





5.1 Introduction

..........................................................................................

68 \





5.2 Summary

...............................................................................................

68





5.2.1 Demographic Information of Respondents

...................................... 68





5.2.2 Effects of Comprehension Errors on

Students‟ Academic Performance

.....................................................................................

69





5.2.3 Effects of reading Difficulties on

Students‟ Academic Performance.

....................................................................................

70





5.2.4 Challenges Faced by Secondary School

English Language Teachers in Dealing with Reading Difficulties.

.............................................. 70





5.2.5 Strategies for Enhancing Reading

Comprehension ......................... 71





5.3 Conclusions

....................................................................................

72





5.4 Recommendations ..........................................................................

72





5.4.1 Recommendation to the Schools

...................................................... 72





5.4.2 Recommendations to the Government

through the Ministry of Education and Other Stakeholders ...................................................

73





5.4.3 Recommendations for Further Research

.......................................... 73





 





 





REFERENCES





APPENDICES

........................................................................................

82





Appendix A: Teachers Questionnaire

................................................. 82





Appendix B: Cloze Procedure Test for Form

Three .............................. 88





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





ABSTRACT





The

purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which reading difficulties

affect academic performance of Uyo City Polytechnic students. The study

objective was to establish comprehension errors that affect students‟ academic

performance. Piaget (1983) theory of cognitive development guided this study.

This study employed quantitative approaches for data collection and analyzes

both lecturers and learners. The research design was a descriptive survey

design. Data was collected by use of questionnaires for lecturers of English

and student‟. The sample of the study included 10 lecturers and 100  students Uyo City Polytechnic. Findings from

the reading test indicated that students who had less problems with word

substitution, omission, mispronunciation and addition scored highly (B+ - C+)

in the end of the semester on exam, and a significance relationship (p>0.05)

between these and academic performance was established. Cloze test performance

where 5 per cent of the students performed below average and students end of

semester one exam where all the sampled  have less than a mean grade of 5 were

indicators of poor academic performance as a result of reading difficulties. Lecturers

indicated that there are dropouts (40%), repeaters (20%) and absentees (40%).

It was established that ninety percent of the lecturers experienced problems in

teaching reading. Sixty per cent of the lecturers did not conduct library

lessons at all due to lack of library resources. Students ignoring or

misinterpreting punctuations while reading was another common problem

experienced by majority of the lecturers. The study recommends that lecturers  should be in-serviced regularly and that the

school administration should ensure availability of library resource and

reference materials through the Ministry of Education. The government and

school administration should come up with measures whereby chronic absenteeism

as a result of lack of school fees in public mixed day secondary schools is

minimized.

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APA

Promise, E (2018). EFFECTS OF READING DIFFICULTIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UYO CITY POLYTECHNIC STUDENTS. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 18, 2018, from http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/effects-of-reading-difficulties-on-academic-performance-among-uyo-city-polytechnic-students-7287

MLA 8th

Ekong, Promise. "EFFECTS OF READING DIFFICULTIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UYO CITY POLYTECHNIC STUDENTS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/effects-of-reading-difficulties-on-academic-performance-among-uyo-city-polytechnic-students-7287 . Accessed 18 Aug. 2018.

MLA7

Ekong, Promise. "EFFECTS OF READING DIFFICULTIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UYO CITY POLYTECHNIC STUDENTS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 18 Aug. 2018. < http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/effects-of-reading-difficulties-on-academic-performance-among-uyo-city-polytechnic-students-7287 >.

Chicago

Ekong, Promise. "EFFECTS OF READING DIFFICULTIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UYO CITY POLYTECHNIC STUDENTS" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed August 18, 2018. http://dubz-by-dan.co.uk/works/effects-of-reading-difficulties-on-academic-performance-among-uyo-city-polytechnic-students-7287