Introduction organisation with exception of every minute and unorganized ones, there is a process known as expenditure control or cost control which is a part of management control process.
This process is very important to any organisation be it a profit maximizing organisation or non profit maximizing organisation. Thus is because lack of this practice in any organisation will cause misapplication of cash in cash disbursement process and this will create a very big problem leading the organisation into deficit and at an extreme case the organisation might fold up
(ie liquidation) Many research have bee conducted in the reason for folding up of companies and organisation in which lack of expenditure control process had been found responsible.
Expenditure control has been defined as the process by which managers utilizes effectively and efficiently the scarce resources in the achievement of organisational goal. At this juncture let us look at expenditure and control from a separate perspective.
Expenditure: It is the total amount spent on the process of trying to achieve a particular goal. This amount spent might be regained if the goal is not achieved.
Control: Is the fact of making things world in a way the is required. It is also the used by either government of official organisation to make restrictions on wages increases, immigrate credit and so on (which are all expenditure)
As regards to this project topic which is a comparative study of expenditure control methods in governments ownes and privately owned hospitals. A case study of university of Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Enugu. (UNTH) and Toronto hospital and Maternity Onitsha.
This implying a comparative study of non-profit-making organisations, since UNTH is government owned hospital while Toronto is privately owned hospital as a category is of non profit making organisation are characterized by the following:
a. There is neither a conscious profit motive nor an expectation of earning net income.
b. No part any excess of revenues over expenditure is distributed to those who contributed support through taxes and voluntary donations.
c. Any excess of revenue over expenditure that results form operations in the short run is ordinarily used on later years to further the purpose of the organisation.
profit making organisation, the reverse of this characteristic is the case in the sense that their major focus is to maximize profit and excess of revenue over expenditure are given to its owners.
Governments owned hospitals pay more attention to services they render to public as their major objectives is to provide services that fulfil a social needs for those who do not have the purchasing power to acquire these services themselves.
Irrespective of the fact that private hospital try to render a good services to the public, they pay more attention to maximization of their major objectives.
Comparative study of expenditure control in government’s and privately owned hospital which is the major research question in this project has to do with the different way and methods by which expenditure is being controlled in each of the hospitals so that they will not run into deficit or liquidations.
According to I.E Johnson (1976) in his book public sector accounting financial control he states that the management control concept which imbibes the expenditure control are the same both in of profit oriented and non profit oriented organisation, but the implication of these concepts differ in important respect. We will want to find out if also the expenditure control methods are the same or differ in the two hospital under study, owning to the fact that one is non profit oriented while the other is profit oriented.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page … … … … … … … i
Approval Page … … … … … … … … ii
Dedication … … … … … … … … iii
Acknowledgment … … … … … … … iv
Proposal … … … … … … … v
Table of Contents … … … … … … … vi
1.1 Statement of problem
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Scope and Limitation of study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.6 Definition of terms
2.1 Overview of expenditure Control
2.2 The expenditure control method/internal Control
2.3 Overview of Internal Control
2.4 Internal Control method of expenditure Control
2.5 Responsibilities of Internal control
2.6 Internal auditing review
2.7 Internal audit as a method for expenditure control
2.8 Management audits
2.10 Cost benefits Analysis
2.11 Expenditure control method in application
2.12 Daily Control method of expenditure Control
2.13 Daily Budgeting
2.14 Daily check
2.15 Daily Analysis
2.16 Benefits of the daily control method of expenditure
2.17 Vote card method of expenditure
2.18 Benefit of vote method of expenditure
2.19 Item relates to income generation of a hospital
2.20 Non medical fee (income)
2.21 Items related to the expenditure of a hospital
2.22 Definition of item
RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODOLOGY
3.2 Sample Selection
3.3 Description of |Instrument used in data Collection
3.7 Questionnaire distribution/Collection
3.8 Other source of data
3.9 Procedure of data analysis
3.10 Decision rule
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.2 Presentation of data
4.3 Analysis of data
4.4 Testing of hypothesis
4.5 Mayor Finding
4.6 Interpretation of result
5.0 Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of finding